高考英语必考:英语主谓一致的3大指导原则(三)_至臻新闻
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    万博manbetx官网主页英语必考:英语主谓一致的3大指导原则(三)

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    [摘要] 主谓一致作为万博manbetx官网主页英语的一个小考点,也难倒了不少学生。主谓关系通常受三大原则支配:语法一致原则、内容一致原则和就近原则。只要理清这些原则,答题就不成问题。

    主谓一致(Subject-Verb Agreement),即谓语动词在“人称”与“数”上要和主语保持一致,这就是中英文的差异之一。中文中“他喜欢你”和“他们喜欢你”中的“喜欢”没有体现主语单复数的差别,而这两句话在英文当中则有“likes”和“like”的差别。

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    就近原则

    就近原则,也称为“邻近原则”或“就近一致原则”,即谓语动词与靠近的名词和代词(不一定是主语)在“人称”和“数量”上保持一致。

    1.当There be句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语动词应与最邻近的主语保持一致。例如:

    ① There is a pen, a knife and several books on the shelf. (a pen决定be动词用is)

    ② There are twenty boy-students and twenty girl-students in the class. (twenty boy-students决定be动词用are)

    2.由here,there,where等引导的倒装句中,当主语不止一个时,谓语动词与最靠近的主语在数上保持一致。例如:

    ① Here comes the bus. (bus决定come用三单形式)

    ② Here is a pen and somepieces of paper for you. (a pen决定be动词用is)

    ③ Where is your wife and children to stay while you are away? (your wife决定be动词用is)

    3.用连词or, nor, either……or, neither……nor, not only……but also等连接的并列主语,谓语动词与靠近它的主语在数上保持一致。例如:

    ① Either you or I am to blame. (I决定be动词用am;若you和I互换位置,be动词则跟随you用are)

    ② Neither the students nor the teacher knows anything abhout it. (the teacher决定know用三单形式;若the students和the teacher互换位置,know则跟随the students用原形)

    ③ Not only the studens but also the teacher likes the movie. (the teacher决定like用三单形式;若the students和the teacher互换位置,like则跟随the students用原形)

    ④ He or I am in the wrong. (I决定be动词用am;若he和I互换位置,be动词则跟随you用is)

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    万博manbetx官网主页英语复习学术交流

    就远原则

    就远原则,和“就近原则”的使用方法相反,即谓语动词要和较远的主语在“人称”和“数量”上保持一致。当用作主语的成分后面跟有由but, except, besides, including, like, with, as well as, as much as, no less than, along with, in addition to, combined with, rather than, together with等引出的短语时,需要采用就远原则。例如:

    ① Everybody except you is down on me. 除了你,大家都看不起我。

    ② A woman with two children has come. 一位妇女带着两个孩子已经来了。

    ③ John, rather than his roommates, is to blame. 约翰,而不是他的室友,应该受到责备。

    ④ Jim, together with his classmates, has seen the film. 吉姆和他的同学都看过这部电影。

    ⑤ My father, no less than I, is a base-ball fan. 我的父亲不亚于我也是个棒球迷。

    ⑥ The son, as well as his parents, wants to go there. 不但儿子想去那儿,而且他的父母也想去。

    ⑦ The teacher, as well as the students, is interested in the activity. 老师也和同学们一样对这项活动有兴趣。

    ◆注意:

    (1)one of +复数名词+who/that/which 引导的定语从句中, 定语从句的动词为复数。例如:

     

    Mary is one of those people who keep pets. 玛丽是饲养宠物者之一。

    (2)The only one of +复数名词+ who/that./which 引导的定语从句中,定语从句的动词应为单数。例如:

    Mary is the only one of those people who keeps pets. 玛丽是唯一一个饲养宠物的人。

    英语主谓一致的3大指导原则已经全部讲解完毕,想知道你学得怎么样吗?找些练习,自己测试一下吧。